Richard J. Bocchinfuso

"Be yourself; everyone else is already taken." – Oscar Wilde

FIT – MGT5157 – Week 7

FIT – MGT5157 – Week 7 – Discussion Post

Discussion: Identify requirements that should be considered when determining the locations and features of firewalls. What are some important steps to take to keep firewalls effective?

In the context of “determining the locations and features of firewalls,” I believe it is critical to understand how infrastructure and traffic patterns are evolving. Firewalls have always been essential in filtering and protecting north-south network traffic. The emergence of technologies like virtualization and software-defined networking (SDN) has dramatically increased east-west network traffic. Like long-range ballistic missiles have impacted aspects of the layer one protection provided by the oceans, these technologies have negated aspects of the physical layer one protection provided by physical network segmentation. Technologies like virtualization and SDN have accelerated the development of next-generation firewalls (NGFW) that deliver a “deep-packet inspection firewall that moves beyond port/protocol inspection and blocking to add application-level inspection, intrusion prevention, and bringing intelligence from outside the firewall.” (Aldorisio, 2017)

Most people are reasonably familiar with perimeter security best practice.
A model that many people are familiar with is the bastion host topology. The bastion host topology would be the type firewall topology deployed on most home networks where the LAN (Intranet) and WAN (Internet) are firewalled by a cable modem which acts as the router and firewall.

A more complex network may utilize a screened subnet topology the implementation of a DMZ (Demilitarized Zone). In the screened subnet topology, systems that host public services are placed on the DMZ subnet rather than on the LAN subnet. The screened subnet topology separates public services from the LAN or trusted subnet by locating publically accessible services in the DMZ. This approach adds a layer of protection so that if a publically available service becomes compromised, there is an added layer of security aimed at stopping an attacker from traversing from the DMZ subnet to the LAN subnet.

A topology which takes the screened subnet a step further is a dual firewall topology where the DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) is placed between two firewalls. The dual firewall topology is a common topology implemented by networking security professional, often using firewalls from different providers as an added layer of protection should an attacker identify and exploit a vulnerability in a vendors software.

Enterprise-grade firewalls also allow for more complex topologies which extend the topologies described above beyond internal (LAN), external (WAN) and DMZ networks. Enterprise-grade firewalls support more interfaces, faster processors which allow more layered intelligent services, higher throughput, etc. The support of software features such as virtual interfaces, VLANs, VLAN tagging, etc. allows for greater network segmentation enabling the ideas discussed above to be applied discretely based on requirements.

Some steps to maintain firewall effectiveness include (Mohan, 2013):

  • Clearly defining a firewall change management plan
  • Test the impact of firewall policy changes
  • Clean up and optimize firewall rule base
  • Schedule regular firewall security audits
  • Monitor user access to firewalls and control who can modify firewall configuration
  • Update firewall software regularly
  • Centralize firewall management for multi-vendor firewalls


Aldorisio, J. (2017, November 27). What is a Next Generation Firewall? Learn about the differences between NGFW and traditional firewalls. Retrieved August 17, 2018, from

Chapple, M. (2018, August 17). Choosing the right firewall topology: Bastion host, screened subnet or dual firewalls. Retrieved August 17, 2018, from

Ergun, O. (2015, January 10). What is East-West and North-South Traffic | Datacenter Design. Retrieved August 17, 2018, from

Hossain, M. (2014, May 21). Trends in Data Center Security: Part 1 – Traffic Trends. Retrieved August 17, 2018, from

How Does Micro-Segmentation Help Security? Explanation. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2018, from

Mohan, V. (2013). Best Practice for Effective Firewall Management. Retrieved August 17, 2018, from

Network and Traffic Segmentation. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2018, from


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 7 – Discussion Response 1

One-off post because Defcon (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. is happening in Las Vegas, if you wanna see what you’re trying to protect against I suggest the following week’s activities. 🙂 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

From solving fizzbuzz with TensorFlow (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to curing cancer (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and everything in between machine learning is changing how we programmatically solve problems, no longer focusing on loops, conditionals, and functions to solve a finite problem, but rather using training data and machine learning to teach the computer how to solve problems even if the inputs change from what is expected.  Essentially we are using training data to teach the computer to reason, we call this inference.  Solving the fizzbuzz problem with TensorFlow is a great example of how machine learning can be used to solve a simple problem.

If you are not familiar with fizzbuzz, it’s a common programmer interview questions.

Write a program that prints the numbers from 1 to 100. But for multiples of three print “Fizz” instead of the number and for the multiples of five print “Buzz”. For numbers which are multiples of both three and five print “FizzBuzz”.

A solution written in python might look like this:

Above you can see the python code solves the problem as presented, but I would have to alter the program to do the same things for a dataset from 101 to 1000. The ridiculous example of using TensorFlow to solve fizzbuzz is the work of Joel Grus and he wrote a hilarious blog (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. on it. Even though it is a ridiculously complex solution to the problem, and it yields the wrong answer it is a great simple exercise to demonstrate the value of a neural network.

Maybe Elon Musk’s warning that AI could become “an immortal dictator from which we would never escape” is exaggerated for effect and Twitter fame, but it seems that AI will clearly be a strong field general with supreme control over the chosen battlefield.  It’s about more than autonomous machines, it’s about autonomous everything, it’s about not solving fizzbuzz with loops and conditional statements, but rather by building a neural network that can solve any variation of fizzbuzz.  It’s not about using malware signatures and firewall rules which statically protects north-south and east-west traffic or stateful packet inspection which requires a known signature but rather building a neural network that can continuously train and continuously improve protections, bad news, the hacker community is leveraging machine learning, deep learning and AI to find and exploit vulnerabilities.  It’s an arms race and both sides have fully operational uranium enrichment plants, we’ll call them TensorFlow, MXNet, Pytorch and a seemingly endless supply of uranium which we’ll call cloud GPUs. 🙂  Cisco calls this “The Network. Intuitive.” I only use Cisco as an example because they made a fancy commercial that that dramatizes the uses of Machine Learning, Deep Learning and Artificial Intelligence to build what they call “The Network. Intuitive.”  Oh, and who doesn’t love Tyrion Lannister?


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 7 – Discussion Response 2

Scott, good post.  Question: Do you think that it will be possible to compete in the enterprise NGFW market without a cloud-based model?  My contention is that the aggregation and profiling of data gathered from deep packet inspection across the entire the industry will allow NGFW OEMs to better identify and address threats.  These datasets will also function as training data for machine learning, deep learning and AI models.  My belief is that the cloud is and will continue to play a huge role in the innovation and adoption of NGFW technologies.

FIT – MGT5157 – Week 6

FIT – MGT5157 – Week 6 – Discussion Post

Discussion: Describe the basis for effective collaboration of security defenses within and between organizations.

This is an interesting question. I think ten years ago effective collaboration of security defenses within and between organizations would be highly dependent on effective open communication between these organizations. Today I think the effective collaboration of security defenses is being aided by two core technology shifts:

  1. Cloud
  2. Machine Learning, Deep Learning, AI

Let’s start with the cloud. Today’s security providers are increasingly becoming cloud-enabled, they are relying on the aggregation of massive data sets (big data) for heuristics on massive compute farms that far surpass what is possible in a heuristics engine on a laptop, desktop or mobile device. Just about every security technology provider is leveraging the cloud and vast resources it provides. When organizations buy into the cloud-based security paradigms it is the equivalent of sharing and communicating information, but this information is now being aggregated, anonymized, analyzed and cross-referenced in real-time.  (Quora Contributor, 2018)

Machine learning, deep learning, and AI are not just buzzwords, they are technologies that harness data and continuously train models that can begin to see things which are not visible to the naked eye. These technologies are greatly altering how we think about security. Security providers like AlertLogic (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Secureworks (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.and many others that focus on IPS/IDS and incident responses models that leverage data which is anonymized, but aggregated and analyzed across their entire customer base, this has tremendous value. Security providers like Tanium (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and Panda Security (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and others who focus on end-point security also use cloud technologies, big data and machine learning to provide superior heuristics. For example, the embedded anti-malware in Windows 10 makes use of “cloud-based protection” to better protect users, users are opted-in to collaborating and opting-out requires the user intervention that is buried in the bowels of the operating system and anti-malware (Windows Defender) configuration settings.

Collaboration and engagement require a focus on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to drive system usability and adoption, this is especially true in the field of security. Users vary and they have different expectations of the systems they interact with, a simple blacklist of whitelist approach no longer gets the job done, these approaches slow productivity and encourage working around the system. (Coursera, 2018)

Intelligent security systems which leverage AI may be able to adapt security protocols based on user usage profiles. For example, what users took the lollipop and what users didn’t and should how security is enforced for these two user types differ? (DreamHost, 2018)

To close out my thoughts this week, I will end with an example of a security problem that is not a platform problem, but rather a use problem, as is often the case. For those of us who have used Amazon (AWS) S3, the AWS object storage servicer we know that AWS offers extremely fine-grained ACLs for S3 buckets, the security paradigm is quite robust and defaults to no-access, but this robustness and fine-grained programmatic and composable infrastructure comes with complexity (Amazon, 2018), complexity leads to usability challenges which leads us to exposing data which is not intended to be exposed. This week that victim was GoDaddy who exposed an S3 bucket containing configuration data for tens of thousands of systems, as well as sensitive pricing information, apropos given our collective conversations last week regarding GoDaddy and DNS registrars.  (Chickowski, 2018)

With > 80% of all corporations experiencing a hack of some sort, exploitation is on the rise and there is no end in sight. (Lipka, 2015) As we continue towards a public cloud world, platforms are providing more choice, easier access, and the ability to be agiler, build faster and come to market faster but we’ve lost the simplistic nature of layer 1 security. We have to have security systems that live at a layer above layer 1 human interaction, and communication. I believe that Progress will depend on the ability of the security systems of today and tomorrow to facilitate zero touch collaboration in an automate and secure way.


Amazon. (2018, August 10). Bucket Policy Examples. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from

Chickowski, E. (2018, August 9). AWS Employee Flub Exposes S3 Bucket Containing GoDaddy Server Configuration and Pricing Models. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from

Coursera. (2018, August 10). Usable Security. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from

DreamHost. (2018, January 30). Take This Lollipop… I Dare You! Retrieved August 10, 2018, from

ElsonCabral. (2011, October 26). Take This Lollipop. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from

Lipka, M. (2015, June 05). Percentage of companies that report systems hacked. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from

Quora Contributor. (2018, February 15). How Will Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Impact Cyber Security? Retrieved August 10, 2018, from


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 6 Discussion Response 1

James, I would go as far as to say unless mandated by a regulatory requirement very few enterprises are advertising breaches and even when mandated by regulatory bodies they are pushing the boundaries of the disclosure.  For example, Equifax took six weeks to disclose the hack, not the only major enterprise in a regulated industry looking to delay disclosure.   The bigger the organization the more sensitive the data the tighter and more broad sweeping the NDAs.  Ed Snowden’s are not falling out of trees and the number of statistical breaches, when contrasted with the number of reported breachs, say there is more interest in obfuscation than there is in disclosure.  Sure, the OTR conversations can happen at an InfoSec meetup, but the bigger the enterprise the more isolated and focused exposure is becoming, with access to systems, processes, conversations, etc. becoming so tightly governed that it’s getting harder and harder to assemble a full picture of a situation. Those who do have the complete picture don’t attend InfoSec meetups, they are busy having dinner at Le Bernardin. 🙂

I think it’s a fair assumption to assume we know only a small fraction of what’s happening and that the preponderance of the most diabolical stuff never makes it into the mainstream.  As technology becomes a profit center for every company, we will see more and more of this.  The days of we are a manufacturing company and tech is a cost center are over, big data, analytics, and machine learning are driving every industry, with the CMO spending more on technology than the CIO.

Not saying we shouldn’t keep trying, but I believe we will see significant innovations that will change the game, relying less on the good behavior of people and more on the machine to make and monitor decisions.  Andrew mentioned the Target breach, there is no reason that and PLC network for HVAC controls should have >= layer 2 access to a network for payment processing, IMO layer 1 is even questionable, what should have been disclosed is the name of the network architect who built that infrastructure and everyone who looked at it thereafter and didn’t yell from the rooftop.



Isidore, C. (2017, September 8). Equifax’s delayed hack disclosure: Did it break the law? Retrieved August 10, 2018, from

McLellan, L. (n.d.). By 2017 the CMO will Spend More on IT Than the CIO. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 6 Discussion Response 2

Andrew, let’s assume that an organization or organizations have a well designed and implemented network infrastructure using platforms from providers like Cisco, Juniper, Palo Alto, etc.

Image result for good private spine leaf design principles

Organizations acting together (e.g. supplier and buyers in a supply chain system), can secure their data exchange on encrypted channels, they can use multi-factor authentication, they can use Geo-fencing, they can use certificate-based PKI Smart Cards, but what if the exploit resides in the router or firewall code?  What if there is an APT (Advances Persistent Thread) against organization X which exploits some vulnerability in the router or firewall code?  When organization X identifies the breach, do they communicate that they have been breached?  If so to whom?  While agreeing that open communication is key to slowing the bad guys, reducing the blast radius, etc. I also believe there are few organizations willing to volunteer that they have been breached, this is especially true if the breach has to do with human error, which they so often do.  The reports we see are typically driven by watchdog groups, like the recent GoDaddy breach (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.; by a regulatory requirement to disclose like the Target (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. or Equifax (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. breach; by a catastrophe like the CodeSpaces (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. breach, but it most cases the motivation to disclose is not very strong at all.  I believe the answer resides in anonymizing the breach reports, focusing a little less on corporate accountability and more of getting the data needed to start programmatically plugging the gaps, making the system less punitive and manding more tech to secure the network so the machine may save us from ourselves.  In essence more carrot and less stick.  For example what if in the case of Target there was stateful packet inspection which saw both PLC data and payment processing data flowing on the same network, and took automated action to segment the traffic, shut the traffic down, etc.  Sure these technologies will get hacked as well, but people are inherently poor binary decision makers and I think we will a different paradigm emerge.  I think we are seeing it already.


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 6 Discussion Response 3

Scott, enjoyed the post.  I think this is my first comment on one of your post in this class.  I like Canvas 1000x better than the old LMS but it feels like this class has more students or something because the discussion threads are long.  Anyway, I have a few friends who work for FireEye, they are 100% focused on APTs (Advanced Persistent Threats) and what they will say is that FireEye focuses on four things: Prevent, Detect, Contain, Resolve. While prevention and detection are important with APTs the bad guys will typically find a way in so they put a heavy focus on containment.  What containment is about is about is not letting the bad guys leave one they are in.  I always think about the bar scene from the movie “A Bronx Tale”.  The bad guys walk it the bar, but then they are contained. 🙂

Stating to see more and more focus on preventing data exfiltration (DLP).

FIT – MGT5157 – Week 5

FIT – MGT5157 – Week 5 – Discussion Post

Discussion: What is the market for DNS control? Who are the big players in managing domain names? Can domain names be exploited?

The market for DNS control is competitive. There is more to DNS control than just owning the DNS resolution, companies like GoDaddy (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. are domain registrars, but they also provide services which leverage those domains, services like web hosting and email.  Organizations like GoDaddy started as registrars and grew into internet service providers, the same is true of organizations like AWS who started as service providers and saw an opportunity to be the domain registrar so AWS started a service called Route53 (cool name because port 53 is the port that DNS runs on).

Domain names are controlled by ICANN (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). ICANN is a non-profit organization that acts as the governing body tracking domain names maintained by domain name registrars like GoDaddy and NameCheap. The ICANN database master domain name database can be queried using “whois”.

Authoritative DNS root servers are controlled by only a few key players, these hostnames actually point to an elaborate network or DNS servers around the world.

Source:  Iana. (2018, August 3). Root Servers. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from

It’s not hard to understand why VeriSign is at the top of the list when you understand the relationship between ICANN and VeriSign.  As you look down the list, not surprisingly there is a correlation between the authoritative DNS root servers and Class A address ownership. WIth the DoD owning 12 Class A addresses you would imagine they would have an authoritative root DNS server.

Source:  Pingdom. (2008, February 13). Where did all the IP numbers go? The US Department of Defense has them. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from


Querying the ICANN database for s specific domain name will return relevant information about the domain name as well as the registrar.

Above we can see that a “whois” reveal the registrar as NameCheap, NameCheap IANA ID, etc…

Each domain registrar is assigned a registrar IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) ID by ICANN.

DomainState (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. tracks statistics about domain registrars so we can easily see who the major registrars are.

Source:  DomainState. (2018, August 3). Registrar Stats: Top Registrars, TLD Marketshare, Top Registrars by Country. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from

GoDaddy is ~ 6x larger than the number two registrar. GoDaddy has grown to nearly 60 million registered domains both organically and through acquisition.

Yes, DNS can be exploited. DNS allows attackers to more easily identify their attack vector. DNS servers are able o perform both forward (mapping a DNS name to an IP address) and reverse lookups (mapping an IP address to a DNS name) this allows attackers to open the internet phone book, easily acquire a target and commence an advanced persistent threat (APT).

Domain names are often linked with branding, so once an APT commences against a domain the resident can’t move.  DNS can also play a role in protecting against threats. Services like Quad9 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.and OpenDNS (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. provide DNS resolvers which are security aware. These DNS resolvers block access to malicious domains.

Because DNS names are how we refer to internet properties typosquatting  (Links to an external site.)Links to an external a popular DNS threat. Typosquatting is a practice where someone uses a DNS name that is similar to a popular domain name capturing everyone who typos the popular domain name.

DNS servers are ideal DDoS (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. attack targets because the inability to resolve DNS addresses has an impact across the entire network.

Registrar of domain hijacking (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. is when the attacker gains access to your domain by exploiting the registrar. Once the attacker has access to the domain records they can do anything from changing the A record to a new location to transferring the domain to a new owner. There are safeguards that can be put in place to protect unauthorized transfers, but someone gaining access to your registrar is not a good situation.

DNS is massive directory and to decrease latency DNS caches are placed strategically around the Internet. These caches can be compromised by an attacker and resolved names may take an unsuspecting user to a malicious website. This is called DNS spoofing or cache poisoning. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

These are just a few DNS attack vectors, there are plenty of others. The convenience of DNS is also what creates the risk. DNS makes it easy for us to find our favorite web properties like, but it also makes it easy for an attacker to find



DomainState. (2018, August 3). Registrar Stats: Top Registrars, TLD Marketshare, Top Registrars by Country. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from

Iana. (2018, August 3). Root Servers. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from

ICANN. (2018, August 3). ICANN64 Fellowship Application Round Now Open. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from

Mohan, R. (2011, October 5). Five DNS Threats You Should Protect Against. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from

Pingdom. (2008, February 13). Where did all the IP numbers go? The US Department of Defense has them. Retrieved August 3, 2018, from


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 5 – Discussion Response 1

Carmeshia, I enjoyed your post. You bring up an interesting point regarding centralization, control, and exploitation. What do you think is more secure, a centralized or decentralized DNS registrar system?

With the increase in APTs (advanced persistent threats) I tend to favor decentralization, but everyone has a perspective, interested in hearing yours.


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 5 – Discussion Response 2

Nawar, good post, I enjoyed reading it. While DNS is not a security-centric protocol, few protocols are. The network’s reliance on DNS is both a good and bad thing. Because DNS name resolution is such a critical network function, it is the target of attacks like DDoS attacks because the blast radius of an attack on DNS is significant. With this said the essential nature of DNS also has many focused on protecting and mitigating risk. Services like Cloudflare (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Akamai (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Imperva Incapsula (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Project Shield (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and others have built robust Anti-DDoS system to identify and shed DDoS traffic.


FIT – MGT5157 – Week 5 – Discussion Response 3

Sharing some pretty interesting data when comparing the top DNS providers. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

When you start to segment domains by Alexa rank (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. GoDaddy gets outranked by Cloudflare, Amazon Route 53, Akamai, and Google DNS pretty consistently.

dns market share

Some good detail on why in this article: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

The moral of the story here is that while GoDaddy appears to the Goliath, they are in terms of domain name registration volume, but the FANG (Facebook, Apple, Netflix, Google) type companies (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.own the internet traffic the volume DNS registration game is becoming a commodity.  GoDaddy has the first mover advantage but competitors like (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. are coming after them.  With Netflix accounting for nearly 40% of all internet traffic (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., the FANG companies matter, and I don’t think the Cloudflare’s, Akamai’s, Amazon Route 53’s of the world want to chase the GoDaddy subscriber base.